Moral is political Notions of ideal citizenship in Lie Kim Hok’s Hikajat Khonghoetjoe

Evi Sutrisno

Abstract


This paper argues that the Hikajat Khonghoetjoe (The life story of Confucius), written by Lie Kim Hok in 1897, is a medium to propose modern ideas of flexible subjectivity, cosmopolitanism, active citizenship and the concepts of good governance to the Chinese Peranakans who experienced political and racial discrimination under Dutch colonization. Using the figure of Confucius, Lie aimed to cultivate virtuous subjects who apply their faith and morality in political sphere. He intended to raise political awareness and rights among the Chinese as colonial subjects and to valorize their bargaining power with the Dutch colonial government. By introducing Confucianism, Lie proposed that the Chinese reconnect themselves with China as an alternative patronage which could subvert White supremacy. Instead of using sources in Chinese, Lie translated the biography of Confucius from the European texts. In crafting his story, Lie applied conglomerate authorship, a technique commonly practised by Malay authors. It allowed him to select, combine and appropriate the source texts. To justify that Confucius' virtue and his teaching were superb and are applicable to contemporary life, Lie borrowed and emphasized European writers’ high appraisal of Confucianism, instead of using his own arguments and opinions. I call this writing technique “indirect agency”.

Keywords


Confucianism; the biography of Confucius; Chinese-Indonesians; Lie Kim Hok; active citizenship; cosmopolitanism.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, Ahmat. 1995. The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855-1913). Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.

Aguilar Jr, Filomeno. 2001.”Citizenship, inheritance, and the indigenizing of ’Orang Chinese’ in Indonesia”, Positions; East Asia Cultures Critique 9/3: 501-533. [Retrieved from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pos/summary/v009/9.3aguilar.html, accessed on 04-01-2012].

Albrecht, J. E. 1879. ”Het schoolonderwijs onder de Chineezen”, Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap 25: 225-241.

Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined communities; Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London / New York: Verso.

Balibar, Etienne. 1988. ”Propositions on citizenship” (translated by Simon James Critchley), Ethics 98: 723-730. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2380893, accessed on 29-04-2016].

Benitez, Francisco. 2004. Awit and syair; Alternative subjectivities and multiple modernities in nineteenth century Insular Southeast Asia. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Bewerker van de Nederduitsche uitgaaf van den Koran [Keijzer, Salomon]. 1862. De heilige boeken der Chinezen, of de vier klassieke boeken van Confucius en Mencius (Khoeng-tseu en Meng-tseu), voorafgegaan door een inleidend levensberigt van Confucius en Mencius, en voorzien van ophelderende aanmerkingen en historische aantekeningen, naar de beste Europesche vertalingen door den bewerker van de Nederduitsche uitgaaf van den Koran. Haarlem: J.J. van Brederode.

Bloembergen, Marieke. 2007. ”The dirty work of empire; Modern policing and public order in Surabaya, 1911-1919”, Indonesia 83: 119-150. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/ stable/40376415, accessed on 23-05-2015].

Borel, Henri. 1896. De Chineesche filosofie; Toegelicht voor niet-sinologen. Amsterdam: Van Kampen.

Chambert-Loir, Henri. 1984. ”Muhammad Bakir; A Batavian scribe and author in the nineteenth century”, Review of Indonesian and Malayan affairs 18/2: 44-72.

Chambert-Loir, Henri. 2015. ”Confucius crosses the South Seas”, Indonesia 99: 67-107. [Retrieved from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ind/summary/v099/99.chambert-loir.html, accessed on 03-06-2015].

Chatterjee, Partha. 1993. The nation and its fragments; Colonial and post-colonial histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Cheah, Pheng. 1998. ”The cosmopolitical – today”, in: Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins (eds), Cosmopolitics; Thinking and feeling beyond the nation, pp. 20-41. Minnesota/London: University of Minnesota Press.

Coppel, Charles. 1981. ”The origins of Confucianism as an organized religion in Java, 1900–1923”, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 12/01: 179-196. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20070420, accessed on 22-05-2009].

Coppel, Charles. 1986. ”From Christian mission to Confucian religion; The Nederlandsche Zendingsvereeniging and the Chinese of West Java 1870-1910”, in: David P. Chandler and M.C. Ricklefs (eds), Nineteenth and twentieth century Indonesia; Essays in honor of Professor. J. D. Legge, pp. 15-40. Clayton, Vic.: Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University.

Fairclough, Norman. 2002. ”Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research”, in: Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer (eds), Methods of critical discourse analysis, pp. 121-138. London: Sage.

Florida, Nancy. 1995. Writing the past, inscribing the future; History as prophesy in colonial Java. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Graaf, Hermanus, Theodore G.Th. Pigeaud, and Ricklefs, M. C. 1984. Chinese muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th centuries; The Malay annals of Sĕmarang and Cĕrbon. Clayton, Vic.: Monash University. [Monash papers on Southeast Asia no. 12.]

Harrison, Robert, Aled Jones, and Peter Lambert. 2004. ”Methodology; ’scientific’ history and the problem of objectivity”, in: Peter Lambert and Phillipp Schofield (eds), Making history; An introduction to the history and practices of a discipline, pp. 26-37. London / New York: Routledge.

Hoëvell, W.R. Baron van and Bleeker, P. 1863. ”De afschaffing van het passenstelstel”, Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie I/2: 236-239.

Hummel, William. 1935. ”K’ang Yu-wei, historical critic and social philosopher, 1858-1927”, The Pacific Historical Review 4/4: 343-355. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/ 3634045, accessed 30-10-2012].

Kuitert, Lisa. 2011. ”Censuur in Nederlands-Indie in de negentiende eeuw; Kranten, boeken en het drukpersreglement”, in: Marita Mathijsen, Boeken onder druk; Censuur en pers-onvrijheid in Nederland sinds de boekdrukkunst, pp. 75-88. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Kwartanada, Didi. 2011. ”Translations in Romanized Malay and the Revival of Chineseness among the Peranakan in Java”, in: Ronit Ricci and Jan van der Putten, Translation in Asia: Theories, practices, histories, pp. 119-135. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

Kwee Tek Hoay. 1969. The origins of the modern Chinese movement in Indonesia. Translated by Lea Williams. Ithaca, NY: Modern Indonesia Project, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.

Lanessan, Jean L. de. 1896. La morale de philosophes Chinois: Extraits de livres classique de la Chine et de l’Annam. Paris: Felix Alcan.

Lee Guan Kin. 2006. ”Introduction – A Chinese journey; Lim Boon Keng and his thoughts”, in: Wen Ching (Dr. Lim Boon Keng), The Chinese crisis from within (revised edition), pp. v-xii. Singapore: Select.

Legge, James. 1867. The life and teaching of Confucius; With explanatory notes. London: Trübner.

Legge, James. 1880. The religions of China; Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with the Christianity. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Lie Kim Hok. 1897. Hikajat Khonghoetjoe; Ditjeritaken di dalam bahasa Melajoe. Batavia: G. Kolff and Co.

Lombard, Denys and Claudine Salmon. 1993. ”Islam and Chineseness”, Indonesia 57: 115-131. [Retrieved from: http://alliance-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/UW:all:TN_jstor_ archive_3410.2307/3351244, accessed on: 22-05-2007].

Maier, Henk. 1997. We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Mansvelt, William, P. Creutzberg, P.J. van Dooren, W. Korthals Altes, and P. Boomgaard. 1994. Changing economy in Indonesia; A selection of statistical source material from the early 19th century up to 1940. The Hague: Nijhoff.

Martin, W.A.P. 1897. ”[Review of] La Morale des Philosophes Chinois; Extraits des livres classiques de la Chine et de l’Annam, J. L. de Lannesan (1896), Paris: Felix Alcan”, The American Journal of Theology 1/3: 796-798. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3153256, accessed on 12-05-2010].

McKeown, Adam. 2004. ”Global migration, 1846-1940”, Journal of World History 15/2: 155-189. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20068611, accessed on 05-01-2011].

Millie, Julian. 2004. Bidasari; Jewel of Malay muslim culture. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Munsji, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir. 1843[1953]. Hikajat Abdullah. Djakarta / Amsterdam: Djambatan.

Nio Joe Lan. 1940. Riwajat 40 taon dari Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan – Batavia (1900–1939). Batavia: THHK.

Njio Tjoen Ean. 1900. Taij Hak atau kitab jang pertama dari pada kitab-kitab soetji dari orang-orang Tjina jang di tinggalkan oleh Nabi Khong Hoe Tjoe (Confucius)ja itoe Soe Sie Pek Boen atau Ampat kitab-kitab dari pada ilmoe hikmad jang sanonoh, dan dari pada kaparentahan negri di benoe Tjina jang mana bergoena sekali pada orang-orang Tjina akan mengatahoei agamanja. Ambon: Ambonsche Drukkerij.

Ong, Aihwa. 1999. Flexible citizenship; The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Putten, Jan van der. 1997. ”Printing in Riau; Two steps toward modernity”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 153 (4): 717-736. [Retrieved from: http://www.kitlv-journals.nl, accessed on 12-05-2010].

Riedhorst, Johanna C and R.R. Dykstra. 1944. Malay-English; English-Malay dictionary. Southwest Pacific: United States Armed Forces (USAF).

Robbins, Bruce. 1998. ”Introduction part I; Actually existing cosmopolitanism”, in: Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins (eds), Cosmopolitics; Thinking and feeling beyond the nation, pp. 1-19. Minnesota/London: University of Minnesota Press.

Rush, James. 1990. Opium to Java; Revenue farming and Chinese enterprise in colonial Indonesia, 1860-1910. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Sakai, Naoki. 2005. ”The West; A dialogic prescription or proscription?”, Social Identities 11/3: 177-195. [Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db= a9h&AN=17941884&site=ehost-live, accessed on 01/04/2010].

Salleh, Muhammad Haji. 1991. Yang empunya cerita; The mind of the Malay author. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

Salmon, Claudine. 1981. Literature in Malay by the Chinese of Indonesia; A provisional annotated bibliography. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.

Salmon, Claudine. 1987. Literary migrations; Traditional Chinese fiction in Asia (17-20th century). Beijing: International Culture Publishing Corporation.

Salmon, Claudine. 2005. ”Confucianists and revolutionaries in Surabaya (c. 1880-c1906)”, in: Tim Lindsey and Helen Pausacker (eds), Chinese Indonesians; Remembering, forgetting, distorting, pp. 130-147. Singapore: ISEAS.

Scheltema, J. F. 1907. The opium trade in the Dutch East Indies I, American Journal of Sociology 13/1: 79-112. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2762537, accessed on 10-05-2016].

Suryadinata, Leo. 2002. Negara dan etnis Tionghoa; Kasus Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES.

Tay Wei Leong. 2010. ”Kang Youwei, the Martin Luther of Confucianism and his vision of Confucian modernity and nation”, The University of Tokyo Center for Philosophy Booklet: Secularization, Religion and the State 17: 97-108.

Tio Ie Soei. 1958. Lie Kim Hok: 1853-1912. Bandung: L.D. Good Luck.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. 2003. Hikayat Siti Mariah. Jakarta: Lentera Dipantara.

Walker, J.H. 2005. ”Hikayat Panglima Nikosa and the Sarawak Gazette; Transforming texts in nineteenth century of Sarawak”, Modern Asian Studies 39/2: 427-460.

Wang Gung Wu. 2006. ”Foreword”, in: Wen Ching (Dr Lim Boon Keng), The Chinese crisis from within, pp. i-iv. Revised edition. Singapore: Select.

Weber, Max. 1951. The religion of China; Confucianism and Taoism. Translated by Hans H. Gerth. Glenco, Ill.: Free Press.

Williams, Lea. 1960. Overseas Chinese nationalism; The genesis of the Pan-Chinese movement in Indonesia, 1900-1916. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

Wodak, Ruth and Michael Meyer (eds). 2001. Methods of critical discourse analysis. London: Sage.

Wong, Young-Tsu, 1992. ”Revisionism reconsidered; Kang Youwei and the Reform Movement of 1898”, Journal of Asian Studies 51/3: 513-54. [Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/ stable/2057948, accessed on 01-12-2008].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17510/wacana.v18i1.577

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Free counters!   https://lh3.ggpht.com/x7QqTfmSv9q5a91R09N98xaZcp2aoVSehSpRIc5ZfwYo28BQ-EsKqXI3pjcRZydxriU=w124 https://abs.twimg.com/icons/apple-touch-icon-192x192.png

View My Stats