Dressed, undressed, or both; The case of Ewaw in Southeast Maluku

Aone van Engelenhoven

Abstract


This article discusses complexity and simplification in Ewaw (also known as Kei or Keiese), an Austronesian language in Southeast Maluku. Section 1 provides an introduction to the genetics, spelling, and phonology of this language, which is related to the Austronesian languages of Timor. There are two main dialects which subdivide into two variants each. Section 2 provides an overview of the productive inflection in Ewaw and its derivational morphology, of which only reduplication is still productive. It has two noun classes and four verb classes, seventeen derivational prefixes and four derivational suffixes. Section 3 is a sketch of Ewaw syntax and deixis. It has twenty-four adverbial markers to encode direction and manner, which can all be analysed as serial verb constructions. Section 4 compares Ewaw grammar to languages in the region. Whereas Ewaw’s petrified morphology is more complex than in any other language in the region, it now has the simplest morphology. Section 5 concludes that Ewaw’s simplification without “shedding” its morphology is problematic.


Keywords


Ewaw (Kei) language; Southeast Maluku; language simplification; comparative morphology.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adhuri, Dedi Supriadi. 2006. “Concept of origin and origin structure of the Austronesians; A reflection from Kei Islands in Southeastern Maluku”, in: Truman Simanjuntak, Ingrid H.E. Pojoh, and Mohammad Hisyam (eds), Austronesian diaspora and the ethnogeneses of people in Indonesian Archipelago, pp. 392-411, Jakarta: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia.

Berg, René van den. 2003. “The place of Tukang Besi and the Muna-Buton languages”, in: John Lynch (ed.), Issues in Austronesian historical phonology, pp. 87-114. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. [Pacific Linguistics 550.]

Blust, Robert. 1993. “Central and Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian”, Oceanic Linguistics 32: 241-293.

Blust, Robert. 2003. “Three notes on early Austronesian Morphology”, Oceanic Linguistics 42(2): 438-478.

Chlenov, Mikhael. 1976. Nasalenie Molukkskikh Ostrovov [The population of the Moluccan Islands]. Moscow: Nauka.

Chlenova, Svetlana F. 2010. “Zametki o jazyke Geser-Gorom s prilozheniem slovnika i obraztsov predlozhenij” [Notes on the Geser-Gorom language with a wordlist and a sample of sentences], in: Artem Fedorchuk (ed.), Studia Anthropologica; Sbornik statej b chest’ M.A. Chlenova, pp. 360-386. Moskva: Mosty Kultury, Jerusalem: Gesharim.

Collins, James T. 1982. “Linguistic research in Maluku; A report of recent fieldwork”, Oceanic Linguistics 21: 73-146.

Collins, James T. and Timo Kaartinen. 1998. “Preliminary notes on Bandanese, language maintenance, and change in Kei”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 154(4): 521-570.

Coward, David Forrest. 1990. “An introduction to the grammar of Selaru”. MA thesis, the University of Texas, Arlington.

Donohue, Mark. 2004. “Typology and linguistic areas”, Oceanic Linguistics 43(1): 221-239.

Donohue, Mark and Charles E. Grimes. 2008. “Yet more on the position of the languages of eastern Indonesia and East Timor’, Oceanic Linguistics 47(1): 114-158.

Drabbe, P. 1926a. Spraakkunst der Fordaatsche taal. ’s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, Weltevreden: Albrecht. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 67.]

Drabbe, P. 1926b. Spraakkunst der Jamdeensche taal. ‘s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, Weltevreden: Albrecht. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 67.]

Drabbe, P. 1932, Woordenboek der Fordaatsche taal.’s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, Weltevreden: Albrecht. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 71.]

Dyen, Isidore. 1965. A lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages. Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press. [International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 31 No. 1; Memoir 19.]

Ellen, Roy. 2003. On the edge of the Banda zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan Trading Network. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 1993. “[Review of] Donald A.

Burquest and Wyn D. Laidig (eds), 1993, Phonological studies

in four languages of Maluku”, Cakalele Maluku Research Journal 4. [Retrievable at: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/ 10125/4133/1 / UHM.CSEAS. Cakalele.v4.VanEngelenhoven.pdf.]

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 2002. “Concealment, maintenance, and renaissance; Language and ethnicity in the Moluccan community in The Netherlands”, in: David Bradley and Maya Bradley (eds), Language maintenance for endangered languages; An active approach, pp. 272-309, London: Curzon Press.

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 2003. “Language endangerment in Indonesia; The incipient obsolescence and acute death of Teun, Nila, and Serua (Central and Southwest Maluku)”, in: Mark Janse and Sijmen Tol (eds), Language death and language maintenance; Theoretical, historical and descriptive approaches, pp. 49-80. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 240.]

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 2004. Leti, a language of Southwest Maluku. Leiden: KITLV Press. [VKI 221.]

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 2009. “The position of Makuva among the Austronesian languages of East Timor and Southwest Maluku”, in: K. Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds), Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history; A festschrift for Bob Blust, pp. 425-441, Canberra: Australian National University. [Pacific Linguistics 601.]

Engelenhoven, Aone van. 2010. “Deixis”, in: Patrick Colm Hogan (ed.), Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences, pp. 347-248, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Geurtjens, H. 1921a. Spraakleer der Keieesche taal. ’s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, Weltevreden: Albrecht & Co. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 63.]

Geurtjens, H. 1921b. Woordenlijst der Keieesche taal. ’s Gravenhage: Emmink. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 63.]

Geurtjens, H. 1924. Keieesche legenden. ’s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, Weltevreden: Albrecht. [Verhandelingen Bataviaasch Genootschap 65.]

Gil, David and Antoinette Schapper (eds). 2020. Austronesian undressed; How and why languages become isolating. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hageman, Dany. 2004. “Derivationele morfologie van het Ewaw”. MA thesis, Leiden University.

Hughes, Jock. 1987. “The languages of Kei, Tanimbar, and Aru; A lexicostatistical classification”, NUSA 27: 71-111.

Hughes, Jock. 2000. “The morphology of Dobel, Aru, with special reference to reduplication”, in: Charled E. Grimes (ed.), Spices from the East; Papers in languages in eastern Indonesia, pp. 131-180. Canberra: Research Scool of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. [Pacific Linguistics 503.]

Hull, Geoffrey. 1998. “The basic lexical affinities of Timor’s Austronesian languages; A preliminary investigation”, Studies in Cultures and Languages of East Timor 1: 97-202.

Hull, Geoffrey. 2004. “The languages of East Timor, some basic facts” (revised 28.4.2004). [Retrieved from: http://web.archive.org/web/20060917145039/www.asianlang. mq.edu.au/ INL/langs.html; accessed on 4-10-2020.]

Hull, Geoffrey and Sabil José Branco. 2002/3. “O Enígma da Língua Lóvaia”, Studies in Languages and Cultures of East Timor 5: 107-134.

Jonker, J.C.G. 1906. “Over de eind-medeklinkers in het Rottineesch en het Timoreesch”, Bijdragen Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde I 59: 263-343.

Kakerissa, O., Ny.J. Kasihuw, and J. Tamaela. 1996. Struktur bahasa Banda. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Klamer, Marian, Ger Reesink, and Miriam van Staden. 2008. “East Nusantara as a linguistic area”, in: Pieter Muysken (ed.), From linguistic areas to areal linguistics, pp. 95-150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Studies in Language

Companion Series 90.]

Lewis, Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds). 2015. Ethnologue; Languages of the World. Dallas, TX: SIL International. [Web version retrievable at: http://www.ethnologue.com.]

Marshall, Craig. 2000. “A phonological description of Fordata”, in: Charles E. Grimes (ed.), Spices from the East; Papers in languages in eastern Indonesia, pp. 181-235. Canberra: Research Scool of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. [Pacific Linguistics 503.]

Mills, Roger F. 1991. “Tanimbar-Kei; An eastern Indonesian subgroup”, in: Robert Blust (ed.), Currents in Pacific Linguistics; Papers on Austronesian languages and ethnolinguistics in honour of George W. Grace, pp. 241-263. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian National University.

McWhorter, John. 2008. “Why does a language undress? Strange cases in Indonesia”, in: Matti Miestamo, Kaius Sinnemäki, and Fred Karlsson (eds), Language complexity, typology, contact, change, pp. 167-190. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Studies in Language Companion Series 94.]

McWhorter, John. 2011. Linguistic simplicity and complexity; Why do languages undress? Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [Language Contact and Bilingualism 1.]

Mettler, Toni and Heidi Mettler. 1990. “Yamdena phonology”, Working Papers in Indonesian Language and Culture 8: 29-79.

Paauw, Scott H. 2008. The Malay contact varieties of Eastern Indonesia; A typological comparison. PhD thesis, State University of New York, Buffalo.

Rahail, J.P. 2000. Adat en het beheer van land en zee op Kei. Utrecht: Moluks Historisch Museum, Landelijk Steunpunt Educatie Molukkers.

Rahantoeknam, Djonnie. 2003. “De Keiese geschiedenis”. [Manuscript.]

Riedel, J.G.F. 1886. De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua. ’s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.

Rijkhof, J. 1991. “Nominal aspect”, Journal of Semantics 8: 291-309.

Schapper, Antoinette. 2020. “The origins of isolating word

structure in eastern Timor”, in: David Gil and Antoinette

Schapper (eds), Austronesian Undressed; How and why languages become isolating, pp. 391-446, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sinnemäki, Kaius. 2008. “Complexity trade-offs in a cross-linguistic perspective”, in: Matti Miestamo, Kaius Sinnemäki, and Fred Karlsson (eds), Language complexity, typology, contact, change, pp. 67- 88. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Studies in Language Companion Series 94.]

Steinhauer, Hein. 2009. “The sounds of Southeast Babar“, in: K. Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds), Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history; A festschrift for Bob Blust, pp. 91-106. Canberra: Australian National University. [Pacific Linguistics 601.]

Tetelepta, J. et al. 1985. Struktur bahasa Kei. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Travis, Ed. 1993. “Bahasa Kei (Evav); Hasil penelitian selama satu abad”, Penyelidikan bahasa dan perkembangan wawasannya 1, pp. 668-686. Ambon: Universitas Pattimura, SIL.

Travis, Ed. 1997. “Kei dictionary”. [Manuscript.]




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1039

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Free counters!   https://lh3.ggpht.com/x7QqTfmSv9q5a91R09N98xaZcp2aoVSehSpRIc5ZfwYo28BQ-EsKqXI3pjcRZydxriU=w124 https://abs.twimg.com/icons/apple-touch-icon-192x192.png

View My Stats